The Lambs of the Prairie

As a child my mother spoke gently of her family’s story and those that went before. She spoke of a special recollection of young children buried way too young on the plains of North Dakota. Her haunting stories spoke of the children buried beneath the plain white markers embossed with fading lambs representing their youth. The Prairie Rest Cemetery is solitary remembrance dedicated to the youngest lambs who died while establishing our state many years ago.

The Lambs of the Prairie

– Clarence Holm

Beneath the broad Dakota blue
On a hilltop kissed with morning dew
Were the silent lambs on prairie old
Lying peacefully, a family’s tears consoled.

Soundless sentinels endlessly resting
Reverent callers gazes arresting.
Their fading faces don’t betray
Machine etched stones, long in decay.

An eternal place of gathering,
Sweet memories in stone are offering
Old stories lost and gone
Waiting together for their eternal dawn.

The Sharing Economy – Sharpen Your Fork

-Clarence Holm

Lyft, Airbnb, and Uber have created quite a stir. Some have claimed it’s  “The End of Capitalism” or “The Millennial’s American Dream” another says. Social medial can’t seem to get enough of the “new” ways to provide goods and services.

To the proponents of these dreams, I say “Beware, sharing is not all it’s cracked up to be!”

First of all, I must acknowledge that I have a predisposition to suspect the motives of anyone who wants to share. From a very early age I learned to be leery of anyone who asks for you “a little bite” of your hotdog or a “sip” of your chocolate milk. Experience taught me that not only would the little bite from the hot dog not be small, but there was a good chance they would also take the remaining wiener, leaving you with only a smear of ketchup and mustard on an empty, soggy bun. And as for sipping your chocolate milk, if it wasn’t slurped in one big gulp, chances are very good there would be left over hot dog bun floating on the top.

If the “no sharing” lesson didn’t take hold in grade school, college should have finished off the sharing spirit. It only took you one time to learn that if you hold a keg party in your house and put a cup out for people to “chip in” not only will you not get any money, but someone will steal the cup. At the same time the keg is being emptied other “guests” will share everything in your cupboards or refrigerator (cooked or raw).

Of course, everything changed when I graduated from college and entered into the world of grown-ups and business. Times were tough and because I was living on a tight starting salary it made sense to me to share an apartment. It turns out that sharing included roommates skipping out in the middle of the night with my record collection in tow and leaving me to discover that he had a girlfriend four states away that loved to talk on the telephone –funny how he thought it would be a great idea to get a phone line under my name only.

Now I hear of the great idea called Airbnb that suggests sharing my home with completely unknown individuals, who were paired with me by a computer program, over the internet. I mean what could go wrong with that idea? Or better yet, I should drive and pick up a stranger (Lyft anyone) and take them on a ride like a taxi to a destination of their choice. Again, what could go wrong with that? (Hasn’t anyone noticed that taxi cabs have sturdy bullet proof dividers between them and their customers?)

Now many would think that I am over reaching and my fears of “someone is being taken advantage” of are totally unfounded but, I still have misgivings. I guess it is hard to get over going to a local diner with high school buddies and ordering french fries. I learned pretty quick it was a good idea to order that side of fries with a sharp fork to defend them with.

Tales From The Rosencrans Family Tree

While my primary genealogy research has been on my family, I have done quite a bit of research on my wife’s paternal family tree (Rosencrans/Rosenkrans/Rosenkranz). While I knew that her family was an early arriver to America from Europe, I was surprised to discover just how early in colonial history it was.

My wife’s 7th great grandfather was Harmon Hendrick Rosenkrans, who was born in Norway in 1634 and had moved to Amsterdam in New Netherlands prior to 1657. According to census figures, the non-native American population was less than 60,000. Harmon married Magdalene Dirckse on March 3, 1657 in New Netherlands. Apparently his new wife had a sense of humor as illustrated by court records dated just a few days later.

“Only a few days after the wedding of Herman and Magdalena, the court records of New Amsterdam registered the following: [March 15, 1657] “The Scout N: de Silla, plaintiff v|s Madaleen Dirck and her bridegroom, defendants. The plaintiff says that the defendants have presumed to insult the Firewardens of this City on the public highway, and to make a street riot, according to the complaint made to his Worship. Requesting for the maintenance of the aforesaid gentlemen’s quality that the petitioners [?] be publicly punished or fined as their Worship shall think proper. Defendant Madaleen Dirck appears alone in Court; admits, that she and her sister passed by the door of the Firewarden Litschoe, and as they always joked, when the Firewarden came to their house, she said: ‘There is the chimney sweep in the door, his chimney is well swept, and not another word was said about it.’

Such behavior cannot, and ought not to be tolerated on account of its bad consequences, the Burgomaster’s condemn, as they do hereby, the above named Madaleen Dirck in a fine of two pounds Flemish, to be applied, one half for the Church and one half for the Poor, and notify her at the same time to avoid all such and similar faults, or in default thereof other disposition shall be made. Done in Court at the City Hall at Amsterdam in N. Netherland.”

-The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653 – 1674, VII., p. 146. 

To understand the seriousness of the fine, consider that a Flemish Pound was equal to 6 Dutch Guilders. On May 24, 1626 Peter Minuit, Director of the Dutch Colony was reported to have bought the entire Island of Manhattan from the Native Americans for goods valued at 60 Guilders. That would mean the fine leveled in Amsterdam on my wife’s 7th great grandmother was equal to one fifth the purchase price of Manhattan.

Obviously whatever was intended by her remarks was taken quite seriously.

Swedish Saga

The story of the Anders Erikson (Holm) Family

Life in Sweden

Anders Erikson (Holm) was born in Eggvena Parish of Herrljunga, Alvsborgs lan, Sweden on February 2, 1829. He was the son on Erik Larson and Maja Andersdotter. They lived in a small village of Herrljunga in the southern portion of Sweden, also known as Götaland.

Ander’s father was the second husband of Maja (Maja is the Swedish version of Mary) Andersdotter. Her first husband was Anders (last name unknown) and they had a son named Andreas Anderson, who was born three years earlier than Anders, in 1826.

The family’s life in Sweden would have been harsh. Property was handed down though the generations and was subdivided between the siblings. Parents remained on the farm and were then supported by the children. Because few children, born prior to 1750, survived into adulthood, the farms remained relatively intact. But, as advances were made in science and mortality decreased, the population doubled between the years of 1750 to 1850. The small farms were divided by larger and larger families.

The famous Swedish bishop and poet Esaias Tegne’r explained the population pressure in three words: “peace, vaccination and potatoes.” He was referring to the fact that Sweden had not been in war since the Russian war of 1809 and the war against the Danes in 1814. Smallpox vaccination had reduced the infant mortality from 21% in 1750 to 15% in 1850. Potatoes became more popular and were a nutritious supplement to the Swedish diet. The combined effects resulted in a growth in population which in turn produced other problems for society. In a country with few industries and cities, the burden had to be carried by the primitive agricultural society.

By the early 1820’s, farms were less that a few non contiguous acres that were spread over the entire village in small fields. Whatever production was achieved was shared with the State’s Swedish Lutheran Church, local government and the Swedish Monarchy through taxes. The combination of a growing population and an inefficient agrarian society pushed the economy of Sweden to its limits. A famine swept the nation, killing 22 out of every 1,000 Swedes.

At the same time that the farm economy was breaking down, Sweden was also forcing more and more people into compulsory military service. By the 1900’s Sweden had drafted almost all it males into compulsorily military service.

The Journey To Amerika

In 1852, the eldest of Maja’s sons, Andreas, left with his wife and children for America.

Anders Erikson followed with Inga Stina Persdotter and a two year old son named Anders in 1855. Both families left well before the wave of emigrants from Sweden in 1865.

In order to leave Sweden they would have had to first obtain permission from the local and federal government to emigrate. Swedish emigration restrictions weren’t eased until about 1865, so the process in the 1850’s probably would have involved a certain amount of harassment, including extra red tape. Once permission was obtained, the families would meet with their church where it was notated in the church records that they had “Gone to Amerika” and their name was crossed off the roles.

It was very hard to get the permissions needed to emigrate, so hard that less the 1 in 2000 people were able to leave Herrljunga area during the period of 1850 to 1860. In fact, according to Swedish emigration records only 586 people total were allowed to leave Sweden in 1855. Anders and Inga were in the vanguard of emigrants to the new land. In contrast, during 1869 32,050 Swedes left for America.

It is difficult to imagine overseas migration without the common people of Sweden being able to read and write. Thanks to the Lutheran Church the rate of illiteracy had always been relatively low in Sweden. The Elementary School Act of 1842 almost erased illiteracy among the younger generation. These young Swedes read about America in newspapers, popular books or pamphlets. The “America-letters” brought news from relatives. Young people learned that success was available for everyone who emigrated. Those letters were circulated from person to person, cottage to cottage and city to city.

sweden map

Location of Herrljunga in Sweden

The route Anders Erikson’s family took probably started with a walk of about 15 miles carrying their immigrant trunk to Lake Vänern followed by a barge trip on the Göta Canal.

The Göta Canal was built by 58,000 billeted soldiers from 16 different regiments. About 60,000 men, including a company of Russian war prisoners, and a number of civilian workers worked a total of about 7 million man-days, (each of 12 hours) during a period of 22 years.

The canal stretches all the way from Gothenburg on the Swedish west coast, combined with the river Göta älv and the Trollhätte canal, through the great lakes Vänern and Vättern, in parallel with Motala ström, and to Söderköping on the Baltic Sea.

sweden 2

The Erikson family’s canal trip would have ended at the Gothenburg Seaport.  They would have boarded the two masted sailing brig call the Anna Margaretta. They sailed “on top of the cargo” or “between the decks”, spending months on the sea and finally, more dead than alive, landing in New York. At Castle Garden, in New York, they would have been inspected for disease, with the sickest ones being returned to Sweden at the ship owner’s expense. Many families were broken up at New York, with little prospect of being reunited.

castle garden

Emigrants Disembarking Near Castle Garden

Castle garden interior

Castle Garden Interior

Many of the emigrants landed at Castle Garden with very little funds, just enough to qualify for entry into America. Their first contact with America would have been the Labor Exchange located in Castle Garden. Some would end up as servants other would be recruited for labor. Many were hired to work on the new railroad lines being laid to Chicago and points west.

castle garden labor

Castle Garden Labor Exchange

While we do not know for sure how Anders Erikson and his family got from New York to Minnesota, the normal route was a train to Buffalo, New York and the Great Lakes. From there they were taken by paddle steamer over the lakes to Chicago, Milwaukee or Duluth. The last part of the journey would have been on foot. Although his name was on the ship log as arriving in New York somewhere along the route to Minnesota, Anders first son perished. His name was not listed in the remaining church records, the 1860 US Census or tombstones in Minnesota.

railroad map

Settling Minnesota

Once Anders reached Minnesota the top priority would have been land selection, then shelter. The first home was a simple cabin much like the poor “torpstuga” in Herrljunga, Sweden, but built on Minnesota’s fertile soil. It is apparent that Anders arrived in Minnesota with enough money to buy 180 acres of land. They did not homestead, but instead bought land from Alexander Ramsey. The farm was located on a half mile north of Gotha, MN.

carver county map

Carver County, Minnesota

The area that Anders chose was in Carver County and was known as part of “The Big Woods”. Clearing the ground of stones in Sweden was replaced by the rooting out of stumps in Minnesota. Luckily the Swedes were use to wood as their principal material for the construction of tools, furniture, buildings, and fuel.

wood land

Natural woodland in Wood-Rill Scientific and Natural Area, located near Orono, MN

In order to plant crops in the open meadows, the early settlers would have to break the sod. The sod was extremely thick and would normally need to turned and left to rot till the next crop season. Settlers could plant potatoes under the turned sod to aid in breaking it up and allowing them to get some food from the land.

The first years were tough, as the settlers cleared land and prepared fields. For some the only income received was from the wood they obtained and shipped by riverboat to Minneapolis for sale as firewood. Others foraged for the numerous wild ginger plants found in the woodland forest. The ginger was highly sought after and could be sold in the Orient. Ginger Agents paid handsomely for the prized roots. In fact, ginger harvesting paid so well, that many farmers abandoned their field preparations to work full time searching for the roots.

wild ginger

Wild Ginger- The roots were gathered for sale to oriental markets

Other settlers moved into Benton Township quickly, including the Ranft family to Ander’s north and the Schug family to Anders’s west. Both of these Germanic families had been in America for a number of years, first living in Butler County, Pennsylvania, before moving to Minnesota.

The Swedish Evangelical Church

Religion was still a major part of Anders and Inga’s life and they joined the Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church in East Union (Also known as King Oscar’s Settlement) that lay to the East.

It was soon apparent that some regulations were needed by the Church Elders to guard themselves and their congregation against preachers who were not followers of the “true evangelical Lutheran doctrine”. “Some of the settlers apparently experienced emotional of spiritual unrest caused by missionary efforts of the Baptists, Methodists, and various fly-by-night preachers including a Lutheran minister who allegedly had problems with alcohol.” Speakers found it necessary to show church authorities their licenses or letters of recommendation before delivering messages from the pulpit at Oscar’s Settlement church.

From the time members in the congregation organized at the Union Settlement, the community had been pushing farther west. Some families who were now located four or more miles beyond the church discovered the reality of Minnesota’s unpredictable and often harsh winter weather. Traveling even a few additional miles became a critical factor during an era when most pioneers depended upon a few fortunate sled-owning families to pick them up along the way to Sunday services; otherwise they walked. These factors prompted these distant members to seek support for their effort to build another place of worship.

In 1858, The East Union settlement church board approved a request made by some of its members to build a second church, creating two congregations of the same Lutheran denomination. Thus the East and West Union churches came into being in 1858. Anders Erickson, whose farm was a half mile NW of the new church was a charter member of West Union and served as a Deacon of the Church.

Anders & Maja Holm

Swedish Education

One of the first responsibilities assumed by the newly installed deacons at Union Settlement church was to plan for their school, which became the forerunner to Gustavus Adolphus College in St. Peter.

Church members were expected to help build the school and furnish the wood needed. Plans were drawn and then the boards and beams needed were divided among the members to bring to the school site. Strict instructions as to thickness and length were given for each board they were expected to bring.

During the 1860’s, an increasing number of Scandinavians were entering Minnesota and the need for Lutheran pastors to serve grew. The residents of Carver County thought it would be beneficial to have somewhere to school these future pastors. After some politicking and fund raising, a school that was located in Red Wing was moved to East Union, near Carver, in order to prepare more students for the seminary. It was named St. Ansgar’s Academy in 1865 in honor of St. Ansgar, the first Christian missionary to Sweden. About half of the students attending were from Carver County. Some students were as young as 10 but many were grown men. In fact, the oldest student entered the academy at age fifty-six!

With hopes of strengthening the school financially and increasing attendance, the Lutheran Synod moved the school program from East Union to St. Peter in 1876. The school was re-organized as Gustavus Adolphus College. The original school building remains at this East Union site.

Minnesota Statehood 

minnesota flag

Until the second half of the 19th century, immigration into Minnesota was slow. But, once the value of the state’s woodlands and fertile prairie was realized, settlers poured into the region with New England lumbermen leading the way. Between 1850 and 1857, the state population skyrocketed from 6,077 to over 150,000.

On May 11, 1858, Minnesota became the 32nd state admitted into the Union. Minnesota’s application for statehood was submitted to President James Buchanan in January, but became entangled with the controversial issue of Kansas statehood, delaying it for several months until it was finally approved by Congress.

1862 Indian Wars

On August 15, 1862, Santee Sioux Chief Little Crow went to the Indian Agency located on the Minnesota River to ask government agent Thomas J. Galbraith to distribute the Indians’ government-stockpiled provisions to his hungry people. “We have no food, but here are these stores filled with food”, he yelled at Galbraith. “So far as I’m concerned, if they are hungry, let them eat grass or their own dung”, retorted trading post operator Andrew J. Myrick. The angry Indians left, but a few days later Myrick’s corpse was found- with grass stuffed in his mouth.

On Sunday, August 17th, four teenage Sioux killed a white family of five in a dispute over farm eggs. Rather than hand the boys over to the army, some of the Sioux chiefs decided the time to fight had come. By dawn the next day, the horrible uprising had begun. At approximately the same hour ironically, a government wagon left St. Paul, carrying $71,000 in gold coins. The long overdue annuity payment was finally on its way.

Little Crow had never wanted to battle the white man. He was highly intelligent and had the bearing of a gentleman. He was considered an expert in dealing with the media of the day. Both on the reservation and in Washington he charmed reporters with his wit and subtle use of sarcasm. He knew the futility of trying to subdue the dominant culture. He gave his most impassioned speech of his life to the young warriors who came to him that morning of August 17th. He had never been more forceful, more passionate, more persuasive, and if he had stopped the council then, there might never have been a war. But another chief who favored war declared Little Crow a coward who was really afraid of the white man. In a resigned, nearly desolate voice, Little Crow responded, “I am not a coward. I will die with you.”

By the end of September, the Sioux uprising in Minnesota was mostly over, though other Sioux tribes in neighboring territories had taken to the warpath. The U.S. troops who were rushed to Minnesota contained the uprising, but not before an estimated 800 white settlers had been murdered and several million dollars’ worth of property had been destroyed. Of 2,000 Indians captured and tried, a military board sentenced 303 to be hanged. President Abraham Lincoln reviewed the list and trimmed it to 38. (With France undecided as to which side it should enter the Civil War on, Lincoln wisely reconsidered the image of hanging over 300 Indians!) The United States’ largest public mass execution was held December 26, 1862, when the 38 Indians were hanged.

indian hanging


“I have the honor to inform you that the thirty-eight Indians and half-breeds ordered by you for execution were hung yesterday at Mankato at 10 a.m. everything went off quietly and the other prisoners are well secured. 


Respectfully, H. H. SIBLEY, Brigadier-General.”

Early Agriculture

cradle scythe

grain planter

Pennock’s Horse Drawn Seed and Grain Planter, circa 1846

In 1859, Wendelin Grimm and his wife Julianna, German immigrant farmers came to Carver County carrying a wooden box full of alfalfa seeds that he soon planted on the Carver County prairie. He gathered the seeds from the alfalfa that survived the first winter and re-planted every year until he had a full crop. Grimm Alfalfa became the most winter-hardy strain of alfalfa available and was an important contributor to the rise of the local dairy industry. Grimm’s Alfalfa was still in use on the Holm’s farm in North Dakota.

Besides Wendelin Grimm, numerous other early pioneers practiced agricultural and horticultural experimentation. Charles Luedloff of Dahlgren Township and Andrew Peterson of Scandia (near Waconia) experimented with apples, plums, and cherries. James Robinson of Dahlgren Township developed the Robinson apple seedling. Louis Suelter of Carver developed several types of grapes including the “Beta.”

Naturalization and a New Name

Surnames were given based on the father’s first name as per Swedish custom. Erik Larson’s son would be “Eriksson” and daughters would be “Eriksdotter”. So Ander’s name was Anders Eriksson. (Later shortened to Erikson) Swedish naming customs were changed by the military beginning in 1820, when the surname stayed with the family. The adoption of surnames made it much easier to track people and information. Many Swedes took that time to adopt a name they liked. Many took names to reflect the area they lived in or a trade association. 

The US Census of 1860 listed Anders last name as Erikson. After his final naturalization papers were completed his surname was changed to Holm. Anders was reported to say “There are too many Erickson’s in Minnesota” so he took the last name of his wife’s father, John Petter Andersson Holm.

Holm is a common Scandinavian name. The name has multiple meanings but the most common one refers to an island or a hill. John Petter probably added the surname Holm (his right as a soldier) based on the geographical features of his farm in Sweden. Because his farm lay miles from the sea, we can surmise his farm was located on a hill. 

Anders Erickson Holm  abt 1901 Hancock Township, Carver County, Minnesota

Anders Erickson Holm
about 1901
Hancock Township, Carver County, Minnesota

The children of Anders and Inga

Anders Peter Erikson 1853-1855?

John Erikson Holm 1857-1926

Ander Peter Holm 1860 – abt 1923 “Outwest”

Emmeli Kristina Holm Pehrson 1861 – 1901

Matilda Holm Noyed 1864 – 1916

John Erickson Holm 

In the 1880 Census John E Holm was listed as the head of household, with Anders E Holm listed as a dependent.

North Dakota Statehood 1889

In 1876, units of the 7th Cavalry commanded by Lt. Col. George A. Custer left Fort Abraham Lincoln near Bismarck to search for the Dakota who had refused confinement on reservations. The resulting annihilation of Custer’s immediate command at the Little Big Horn River in MontanaTerritory made names such as Crazy Horse, Gall, and Sitting Bull familiar throughout the nation. Many Dakota moved to Canada to escape relentless punitive expeditions sent by the army, and remnants finally surrendered at Fort Buford in 1881. Nine years later Sitting Bull, the leading opponent of reservation life, identified with the Ghost Dance religion, one that forecast the return of traditional Plains Indian ways. Standing Rock Reservation Indian police were sent to arrest the elderly leader at his home in 1890, and Sitting Bull was killed.

Significant immigration commenced when the westbound Northern Pacific Railway built to the Missouri River in 1872 and 1873. A great settlement “boom” in northern Dakota occurred between 1879 and 1886. During those years, over 100,000 people entered the territory. So significant was this foreign immigration that in 1915 over 79% of all North Dakotans were either immigrants or children of immigrants. 

ND flag

journal entries

Around 1885, John E Holm moves to ND for first time, settles in Hobart Township, Barnes County. He rents land from John Anderson. The accompanying ledger page from the John Anderson Collection at the Minnesota Historical Society lists the first purchases John E Holm made at that time.

The purchases demonstrate the necessities needed to began a farming operation at that time. Purchases include a team of horses (named Jack and Jennie) $400, a mule (named Sallie) $150, a wagon $50, 150 bushels of oats $45, one hay stack $16, a cow calf $60 and other miscellaneous items. The total for this for the first few months of purchases was $1,184.49. According to an inflation calculator an 1885 dollar would be worth about 20 dollars in 2005 dollars.  That would mean John E Holm’s purchase would have been nearly $24,000 in today’s (2006) dollars. It was interesting to notice that on the 1887 ledger pages, John E was given a $75 credit for a “Dead Mule”. Obviously, a warrantee clause was invoked.

According to an interview of Kathryn Ranft Holm, kept by the North Dakota Historical Society, John E’s farm is destroyed around 1889 by fire and he returns to Carver County. This seems to be backed up by an 1888 notation in the ledger saying that the account had been balanced and closed by mutual agreement.

barnes county

John E Holm family returns to ND in about 1891 and settles in Cuba Township, Barnes County. He bought a quarter section of land on crop payments from John Anderson. John Holm’s family moves back and forth with the seasons between Cologne and Cuba for four years, using the railroad which has lines located in Cuba and Cologne. The farm was established and a home was finally completed in 1895, so they were finally able to take residence in North Dakota.

John Anderson was the first cousin of John E. Holm, and the son of Andreas (Anders Erickson Holm’s half brother). John Anderson managed over four thousand acres of land in and around Barnes County, ND. He was one of the original owners of the “Cuba Farmers Cooperative Mercantile Co”,

cuba merchantile

along with John E Holm. He also was a major shareholder in stores located in Oriska, ND and Glencoe, MN.

It appears from the ledger books he maintained, that he and John E Holm still had a very close business relationship. The books we examined showed Anderson carried a credit line for John E Holm. Because of this line of credit, John E was able to increase his land holdings, even in the face of multiple years of crop failure in the Dakotas. Evidence of their friendship was found in pictures, found in the files, of John Anderson and John E Holm taken in 1907 in Los Angeles, CA while they were visiting relatives.

masonic award

John & Mollie (Haish) Anderson moved to Valley City in 1882. During the 1880’s John served as the Valley City Justice of the Peace and ran for Mayor of Valley City. In the late 1890’s, John moved Mollie and the children back to Minnesota. John maintained a business presence in Valley City for the remainder of his life. He was one of the original members of the Masons in Valley City and was given a Life Time Membership from the group. The certificate presented to him was signed by Stanley Mythaler and Vernon Gale.  After returning to school to attain his Law Degree in 1891 from the University of Minnesota, he continued to operate out of Valley City.

One of John Anderson’s sons was Leslie Anderson. Leslie, a veteran and a Harvard Graduate, went on to become a District Court Judge of Minneapolis. Leslie was also very active in the National GOP Party. The National GOP gave him the assignment of creating the Young Republicans Group in Minnesota. Leslie was married, but unfortunately his wife died of a brain aneurism within a few months of that marriage.

A daughter of John Anderson, named Ruth, became a Home Economist and found employment with a Minneapolis Flour Co. Her department there was better known as Betty Crocker. Ruth’s job was to answer consumer questions under the pen name of Betty Crocker.

Cuba Mercantile and Partners


John E Holm Threshing Crew – Cuba, ND

threshing 2

Threshing Machine – Cuba, ND

john photographer

John Holm photographing John E Holm (in white shirt) and friends

John E Holm’s Children

john holm family

John Holm 1883 – 1951

George Holm 1884 – 1964

Henry Albert Holm 1887 – 1963

Edward Paul Holm 1888 – 1945

Anna Matilda Holm Dill Smith 1891 – 1946

Catherine Mary Holm Kreidlkamp 1894 – 1944

Herman (Fritz) Frederick Holm 1897 – 1976

For many, however, the economic hardships of the Depression could not be overcome. Thousands of North Dakotans lost their farms and either moved into the cities and towns or from the state. One historian estimates that over 70% of the state’s people required one form or another of public assistance. The toll in broken dreams, physical hunger and hardship, and displacement will never be completely measured. Still, most North Dakotans stubbornly held on, husbanding their resources and spending carefully. Even during the hard times, for example, drought-stricken counties and cities rarely missed bond payments, and indeed the public debt in the state was substantially reduced during the Depression years.